2003 TRACE GENETICS GEL SHEETS - DNA TEST
These are photographs of the actual gel sheets that were used to recover DNA from the Starchild Skull and from the human female skull during the 2003 DNA testing at Trace Genetics.
Image shows digested products of amplification for Starchild first extraction (SCSe1) and Associated skull first extraction (SAe1) for fragment defining mitochondrial haplogroup A side by side. Gel was run before digestion was complete and original band is still present. Presence of lower bands for SAe1 indicate fragment cut and is haplogroup A. SCSe1 band is not haplogroup A.
Left image is product gel indicating amplification of Starchild skull, third extraction (SCSe3) at two different concentration. Lanes are labeled at top as 1 and 2 but Starchild experiments are only in the four right-most lanes. Both samples amplified. Right image is amplified DNA after digestion. Presence of two bands indicates digestion indicated samples are members of mtDNA haplogroup C.
Second Starchild skull extraction (SCSe2) digested for fragment defining mtDNA haplogroup C. The smaller band (lane labeled 3, but is 1st lane from the left) indicates that the fragment cut and the sample contained haplogroup C DNA. Associated skull did not digest, nor did two extraction blanks from the SAe2 extraction that also amplified. Contamination was sporadic and these blanks did not amplify in other reactions. SA routinely amplied for this fragment and did not digest.
Human female mtDNA recovery
Human female nuDNA recovery
Starchild Skull six failed attempts at nuDNA recovery
Starchild Skull mtDNA recovery
Post-enzyme digestion. Digested fragments indicate sample is mitochondrial haplogroup A. Image shows two bands for the Associated skull first extraction (SAe1) after digestion for mtDNA fragment defining haplogroup A (one of the known Native American mtDNA types)in lane 2. Starchild first extraction (SCSe1) did not amplify. Small bands (faint in lane 1 and 3 but visible in lanes 1, 3, and 4) are primer-dimer for those primers.
Starchild first extraction (SCSe1) and associated skull, first extraction (SAe1). Starchild fails to amplify, though primer-dimer is present indicating that the reaction was not likely inhibited. The associated skull's DNA did amplify and appears to be female.
Starchild third extraction (SCSe3) fails to amplify for amelogenin at various concentrations of extraction used. Postive control amplifies. The low bands in lanes 1,2 and 3 is what is known as 'primer dimer,' a case where primers bind to each other if there's not any DNA corresponding to the primers, but the reaction is not inhibited and the chemistry is working. It can happen in some reactions under some circumstances and not others.
Starchild third extraction fails to amplify for amelogenin. Postive control amplifies.
Associated skull, first extraction (SAe1-lane 3) is female as only one band is shown for nuclear amelogenin gene segment where X and Y chromosome differ. Also indicates that the second extract from Starchild (SCSe2) did not demonstrate amplifable DNA (lanes 1 and 2). Positive control amplifies.